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CHARACTERIZATION AND DOSIMETRY OF FABRICATED BIO-BASED ADHESIVES RHIZOPHORA SPP. PARTICLEBOARD PHANTOM FOR MAMMOGRAPHY AND DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY IMAGING

 

CHARACTERIZATION AND DOSIMETRY OF FABRICATED BIO-BASED ADHESIVES RHIZOPHORA SPP. PARTICLEBOARD PHANTOM FOR MAMMOGRAPHY AND DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY IMAGING

ABSTRACT     

 

Rhizophora spp. wood can be used as a phantom in three general ways: raw (natural) wood, binderless particleboard, and adhesive–based particleboard. In this study, two bio–adhesives from plant and animal resources were used to fabricate the Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantom to be used for diagnostic X-ray. The powdered Eremurus spp. root and gelatine powder were used as the plant–based and animal–based adhesives (Serishoom), respectively.

 

The characterization of bio–adhesives consistes of pH value, viscosity, thermal properties, proximate analysis, evaluation of functional groups, micro-structure analysis and determination of effective atomic number, were evaluated. The characterizations indicated the potential use of them as the adhesive in the Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantom.

 

The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated with two bio–based adhesives (the powdered Eremurus spp. root and Serishoom powder) with two adhesive content levels (6% and 12%) with three Rhizophora particle sizes (≤149 μm; 149 μm – 500 μm; 500 μm –1000 μm). The water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), internal bond strength (IB), and density distribution of the fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboards were determined as the physical and mechanical characterizations. The physical and mechanical properties were improved by the increased adhesives treatment level and reduced Rhizophora particle size. Although, dimensional stability of the Rhizophora spp. particleboard bonded with Eremurus spp. root was found affected by the adhesive particle size.

 

In the third part of this study, the attenuation properties of the bio–adhesives and fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboards were evaluated by the XRF system in 16.63 – 25.30 keV photon energy range. The measured mass attenuation coefficients of the fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboards were found close to those of water and young–breast calculated by the XCOM computer code. The mass attenuation of the Rhizophora spp. particleboard was affected by type of bio-adhesive, adhesive treatment level, and particle size. Generally, the mass attenuation coefficient of the Rhizophora spp. particleboard became closer to XCOM calculated that of young–age breast tissue by the reduced Rhizophora spp. particle size and the decreased adhesive treatment level. Also, the mass attenuation coefficient of the EremurusRhizophora spp. particleboard was affected by the Eremurus spp. root particle size, where the mass attenuation coefficient of the EremurusRhizophora spp. particleboard with same particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. and Eremurus spp. was found very close to that of young–age breast tissue calculated by the XCOM computer code.

 

Finally, water, Perspex, EremurusRhizophora spp., SerishoomRhizophora spp. particleboards phantoms were fabricated into standard size phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm to evaluate dosimetric properties for X-ray diagnostic radiology in the 60 to 100 kVp range of X-ray beams energy by high sensitive thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD–100H). The relative percentage depth dose (PDD) values of the fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms were found approximately very close to that of Perspex phantom in 60 to 100 kVp of X-ray beams energy. The PDD of the fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms were found in agreement with that of water phantom. The biggest variety of PDD values of the fabricated Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms occurred with that of water in the lower X-ray energy (60 kvp).

PENCIRIAN DAN DOSIMETRI FANTOM PAPAN SERPAI RHIZOPHORA SPP. BERASASKAN BIOPEREKAT TERFABRIKASI UNTUK PENGIMEJAN MAMOGRAFI DAN SINAR-X DIAGNOSIS

ABSTRAK

Kayu Rhizophora spp. telah dipertimbangkan untuk digunakan sebagai bahan fantom selama kira-kira tiga dekad. Kayu boleh digunakan sebagai fantom dalam tiga cara umum: kayu mentah, papan serpai tanpa partikel, dan perekat papan serpai.

Dalam kajian ini, dua bio-perekat dari sumber-sumber tumbuhan dan haiwan yang digunakan untuk pembuatan fantom papan serpai Rhizophora spp. untuk diagnosis sinar-X. Serbuk akar Eremurus spp. dan serbuk gelatin masing-masing telah digunakan sebagai perekat berasaskan tumbuhan dan berasaskan haiwan. Perekat berasaskan haiwan dipanggil Serishoom sebagai nama tradisi dalam bahasa Parsi.

Kajian ini terdiri daripada empat bahagian umum. Dalam langkah pertama, pencirian bio-perekat, yang mengandungi nilai pH, kelikatan, sifat haba, analisis proksimat, penilaian kumpulan berfungsi, analisis mikro-struktur dan penentuan nombor atom berkesan, telah dilaksanakan. Pencirian perekat berasaskan bio menunjukkan potensi untuk diggunalca sebagai perekat fantom papan serpai Rhizophora spp.

Kedua, papan serpai Rhizophora spp. telah direka dengan mengenakan dua perekat berasaskan bio (serbuk akar Eremurus spp dan serbuk Serishoom.) dengan dua tahap kandungan perekat (6% dan 12%) dengan tiga saiz zarah Rhizophora (≤ 149 μm; 149 μm - 500 μm; 500 μm -1000 μm). Penyerapan air (WA), bengkak ketebalan (TS), kekuatan ikatan dalaman (IB), dan ketumpatan papan serpai Rhizophora spp. telah ditentukan sebagai pencirian fizikal dan mekanikal. Ciri-ciri fizikal dan mekanikal telah diperkukuhkan melalui peningkatan tahap kandungan perekat dan mengurangkan saiz zarah Rhizophora. Kestabilan dimensi papan serpai Rhizophora spp. terikat dengan akar Eremurus spp. didapati dipengaruhi oleh saiz zarah perekat.

Dalam bahagian ketiga kajian ini, sifat-sifat bio-perekat dan papan serpai Rhizophora spp. direka dinilai dengan sistem XRF 16.63-25.30 keV foton papan serpai. Pekali pengecilan jisim yang diukur papan serpai Rhizophora spp. direka didapati dekat kepada air dan payudara muda dikira dengan kod komputer XCOM. Serta, pengecilan jisim papan serpai Rhizophora spp. telah dipengaruhi oleh jenis bio-pelekat, tahap rawatan pelekat, dan saiz zarah. Secara umumnya, pekali pengecilan jisim Rhizophora spp. partikel menjadi lebih dengan pengiraan XCOM bagi tisu payudara muda umur oleh dikurangkan saiz zarah Rhizophora spp. dan mengurangkan tahap rawatan pelekat itu. Juga, pekali pengecilan jisim papan serpai Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. telah terjejas oleh saiz zarah akar Eremurus spp., yang pekali pengecilan jisim papan serpai Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. dengan saiz zarah sama daripada Rhizophora spp. dan Eremurus spp. didapati sangat dekat dengan tisu payudara muda umur dikira dengan kod komputer XCOM.

Akhirnya, fantom-fantom air, perspek, papan serpai Eremurus-Rhizophora spp., papan serpai Serishoom-Rhizophora spp. telah dibuat dalam saiz fantom standard (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) untuk menilai ciri-ciri dosimetri untuk radiologi sinar-X diagnosis 60 hingga 100 kVp dengan dosimeter thermoluminescent sensitif tinggi (TL-100H). Nilai-nilai peratusan relatif kedalaman dos (PDD) fantom papan serpai Rhizophora spp. didapati sangat hampir dengan perspek dalam tenaga sinar-X 60 hingga 100 kVp rasuk. Serta, PDD fantom papan serpai Rhizophora spp. didapati dalam perjanjian dengan fantom air. Kepelbagaian terbesar nilai PDD yang fantom papan serpai direka Rhizophora spp. telah berlaku dengan air yang lebih rendah X-ray tenaga (60 kVp).